How to Use Phenomenology in Research
Phenomenology is a type of research method that focuses on the subjective experiences of individuals in a particular environment or situation. It is a qualitative approach that involves the researcher interacting with participants in order to gain an understanding of their lived experiences. Phenomenology is often used in the social sciences and in healthcare research, as it allows researchers to gain a better understanding of their participants’ perspectives. In this article, we will discuss how to use phenomenology in research.
Step 1: Determine Your Study’s Focus
Before beginning any research, it is important to determine the focus of your study. This includes determining the goal of the research, the research questions, and the population of interest. Once you have determined the focus of your study, you can then decide which type of research method is most suitable, including phenomenology.
Step 2: Develop a Phenomenological Research Design
Once you have identified the focus of your study, you can begin to develop a research design that incorporates phenomenology. This includes determining the sampling method you will use, the data collection strategies, and the type of analysis you will employ. It is important to ensure that the design is tailored to the study’s focus and will allow you to gain a better understanding of the participants’ experiences.
Step 3: Select Appropriate Data Collection Strategies
When using phenomenology in research, it is important to select data collection strategies that are appropriate for the study’s focus. This typically involves the use of interviews, observations, and/or focus groups. Each of these methods allows the researcher to gain a deeper understanding of the participants’ experiences and perspectives.
Step 4: Analyze the Data
Once the data has been collected, the next step is to analyze it. This often involves coding the data and identifying themes and patterns. It is important to ensure that the analysis is conducted in an unbiased manner, as this allows the researcher to gain an accurate understanding of the participants’ experiences.
Step 5: Draw Conclusions
The final step is to draw conclusions from the data. This involves synthesizing the data and determining the implications for the study’s focus. Once the conclusions have been drawn, the researcher can then discuss the results in terms of the study’s goals and questions.
Phenomenology is a valuable research method that allows researchers to gain a better understanding of their participants’ perspectives. In order to use phenomenology in research, it is important to first determine the focus of the study and then develop a research design that incorporates phenomenology. This includes selecting appropriate data collection strategies and analyzing the data. Finally, the results should be discussed in terms of the study’s goals and questions. By following these steps, researchers can use phenomenology to gain a better understanding of their participants’ lived experiences.
 Seale, C. (1999). The Quality of Qualitative Research. London: Sage Publications.
 Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2003). Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
 Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.